Feedback, even positive feedback, can reduce performance.
Listening is transformational. See a Harvard Business Review paper.
Feedforward, with listening, could substitute feedback.
Key Academic Publications
He who answers before listening – that is his folly and his shame. (Proverbs 18:13)
Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; but a man of understanding will draw it out. (Proverbs 20:5)
Kluger, A. N., & Itzchakov, G. (2022). The power of listening at work. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 9, 121-146. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012420-091013
Kluger, A. N., Malloy, T. E., Pery, S., Itzchakov, G., Castro, D. R., Lipetz, L., Sela, Y., Turjeman‐Levi, Y., Lehmann, M., New, M., & Borut, L. (2021). Dyadic listening in teams: Social relations model. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 70(3), 1045–1099. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12263
Castro, D. R., Anseel, F., Kluger, A. N., Lloyd, K. J., & Turjeman-Levi, Y. (2018). Mere listening effect on creativity and the mediating role of psychological safety. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 12, 489-502. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000177
Itzchakov, G., DeMarree, K. G., Kluger, A. N., & Turjeman-Levi, Y. (2018). The Listener Sets the Tone: The Effect of High Quality Listening on Speakers' Attitude Certainty and Behavior-Intention Consequences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(5), 762-778. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167217747874
Itzchakov, G., Kluger, A. N., & Castro, D. R. (2017). I am aware of my inconsistencies but can tolerate them: The effect of high quality listening on speakers' attitude ambivalence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(1), 105–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167216675339
Castro, D. R., Kluger, A. N., & Itzchakov, G. (2016). Does avoidance-attachment style attenuate the benefits of being listened to? European Journal of Social Psychology, 46(6), 762-775. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2185
The Feedforard Interview "shows potential for mitigating some of the negative effects of the traditional performance appraisal interview process." (Budworth, Latham, & Manroop, 2014, p. 8)
Bouskila-Yam, O., & Kluger, A. N. (2011). Strength-based performance appraisal and goal setting. Human Resource Management Review, 21(2), 137-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.09.001
Kluger, A. N., & Nir, D. (2010). The feedforward interview. Human Resource Management Review, 20(3), 235-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.08.002
Van Dijk, D., & Kluger, A. N. (2011). Task type as a moderator of positive/negative feedback effects on motivation and performance: A regulatory focus perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(8), 1084-1105. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.725
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254-284. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254
*Kluger, A. N., & Malloy, T. E. (2019). Question asking as a dyadic behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117, 1127-1138. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000156
* Contact me to learn about corrections to this paper.
Kluger, A. N., Stephan, E., Ganzach, Y., & Hershkovitz, M. (2004). The effect of regulatory focus on the shape of probability-weighting function: Evidence from a cross-modality matching method. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95(1), 20-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2004.05.003
Kluger, A. N., Siegfried, Z., & Ebstein, R. P. (2002). A meta-analysis of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking. Molecular Psychiatry, 7(7), 712-717. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001082
Kluger, A. N., & Tikochinsky, J. (2001). The error of accepting the "theoretical" null hypothesis: The rise, fall, and resurrection of commonsense hypotheses in psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 408-423. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.3.408